Effects of Different Parenting Styles on Mental Health and Academic Outcomes for Adolescents from Different Cultural Backgrounds


  • Sihan Zhou




Parenting styles; Adolescents; Mental health; Academic outcomes; Cultural difference.


This literature review aims to find the impacts of different parenting styles on the mental health and academic outcomes of adolescents from different cultural backgrounds. The results of the literature review showed that parenting styles demonstrate a significant impact on adolescents’ mental status and academic performance. Generally speaking, the authoritative parenting style which is characterized by a high level of warm care, rational communication, prioritization of independence and achievements, moderate control, and a low level of severity was found to be the most effective type. However, the results also indicated that the effects of parenting styles on adolescents are influenced by different cultural backgrounds and social norms. Therefore, future studies are suggested to take cultural factors and individual differences into account.


Download data is not yet available.


Barber, B. K. (1996). Parental Psychological Control: Revisiting a Neglected Construct. Child Development, 67(6), 3296–3319. https://doi.org/10.2307/1131780.

Baumrind, D. (1991). The Influence of Parenting Style on Adolescent Competence and Substance Use. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 11(1), 56–95. https://doi.org/10.1177/0272431691111004.

Brenning, K., Soenens, B., Braet, C., & Bal, S. (2012). The role of parenting and mother-adolescent attachment in the intergenerational similarity of internalizing symptoms. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41(6), 802–816. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-011-9740-9.

Brown, J. D., Cai, H., Oakes, M. A., & Deng, C. (2009). Cultural Similarities in Self-Esteem Functioning: East is East and West is West, But Sometimes the Twain do Meet. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 40(1), 140–157. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022108326280.

Chan, K.-W., & Chan, S.-M. (2005). Perceived Parenting Styles and Goal Orientations: A Study of Teacher Education Students in Hong Kong. Research in Education, 74(1), 9–21. https:// doi.org/ 10. 7227/RIE.74.2.

Chao, R.K. (1994). Beyond Parental Control and Authoritarian Parenting Style: Understanding Chinese Parenting Through the Cultural Notion of Training. Child Development, 65(4), 1111-1119. https:// doi.org/ 10.2307/1131308.

Chao, R. K. (2000). The parenting of immigrant Chinese and European American mothers: Relations between parenting styles, socialization goals, and parental practices. Journal of Applies Developmental Psychology, 21(2), 233-248. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0193-3973(99)00037-4.

Chen, HY., Ng, J. & Pomerantz, E.M. (2021). Why is Self-Esteem Higher Among American than Chinese Early Adolescents? The Role of Psychologically Controlling Parenting. Journal of Youth and Adolescence 50(9), 1856–1869. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-021-01474-4.

Dornbusch, S. M., Ritter, P. L., Leiderman, P. H., Roberts, D. F., & Fraleigh, M. J. (1987). The Relation of Parenting Style to Adolescent School Performance. Child Development, 58(5), 1244–1257. https:// doi.org /10.2307/1130618.

Glasgow, K. L., Dornbusch, S. M., Troyer, L., Steinberg, L., & Ritter, P. L. (1997). Parenting styles, adolescents' attributions, and educational outcomes in nine heterogeneous high schools. Child development, 68(3), 507–529. https://doi.org/10.2307/1131675.

Greening, L., Stoppelbein, L. & Luebbe, A. (2010). The Moderating Effects of Parenting Styles on African-American and Caucasian Children’s Suicidal Behaviors. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39(4), 357–369. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-009-9459-z.

Heine, S. J., Lehman, D. R., Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1999). Is there a universal need for positive self-regard? Psychological Review, 106(4), 766–794. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.106.4.766.

Ishak, Z., Low, S.F. & Lau, P.L. (2012). Parenting Style as a Moderator for Students’ Academic Achievement. J Sci Educ Technol 21(4), 487–493 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10956-011-9340-1.

Kainz, K., Willoughby, M. T., Vernon-Feagans, L., Burchinal, M. R., & Family Life Project Investigators. (2012). Modeling family economic conditions and young children’s development in rural United States: Implications for poverty research. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 33(4), 410–420. https:// doi. org/10.1007/s10834-012-9287-2.

Kang, Y., & Moore, J. (2011). Parenting style and adolescents’ school performance in main land China. US-China Education Review, 1, 132-137.

Kerr, M., Stattin, H., & Özdemir, M. (2012). Perceived parenting style and adolescent adjustment: Revisiting directions of effects and the role of parental knowledge. Developmental Psychology, 48(6), 1540–1553. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0027720.

Kim, S. Y., Wang, Y., Orozco-Lapray, D., Shen, Y., & Murtuza, M. (2013). Does "Tiger Parenting" Exist? Parenting Profiles of Chinese Americans and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 4(1), 7–18. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0030612.

Li, Y., Costanzo, P. R., & Putallaz, M. (2010). Maternal socialization goals, parenting styles, and social-emotional adjustment among Chinese and European American young adults: testing a mediation model. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 171(4), 330–362. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221325.2010.505969.

Maccoby, E. E., & Martin, J. (1983). Socialization in the context of the family: Parent child interaction. In E. M. Hetherington (Ed.), P. H. Mussen (Series Ed.), Hand book of child psychology: Socialization, personality, and social development (vol. 4, pp. 1-101). New York: Wiley.

Majumder, M.A. (2016). The Impact of Parenting Style on Children’s Educational Outcomes in the United States. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 37(1), 89–98. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10834-015-9444-5.

McClun, L. A., & Merrell, K. W. (1998). Relationship of perceived parenting styles, locus of control orientation, and self-concept among junior high age students. Psychology in the Schools, 35(4), 381–390. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6807(199810)35:4<381: AID-PITS9>3.0.CO;2-S.

Merlin, Clare; Okerson, Justine Rebecca; and Hess, Phillip (2013) "How Parenting Style Influences Children: A Review of Controlling, Guiding, and Permitting Parenting Styles on Children’s Behavior, Risk- Taking, Mental Health, and Academic Achievement," The William & Mary Educational Review: Vol. 2: Iss. 1, Article 14. https://scholarworks.wm.edu/wmer/vol2/iss1/14.

Ng, F. F., Pomerantz, E. M., & Deng, C. (2014). Why are Chinese mothers more controlling than American mothers? "My child is my report card". Child Development, 85(1), 355–369. https:// doi.org/ 10. 1111/cdev.12102.

Nguyen P. V. (2008). Perceptions of Vietnamese fathers' acculturation levels, parenting styles, and mental health outcomes in Vietnamese American adolescent immigrants. Social work, 53(4), 337–346. https://doi.org/10.1093/sw/53.4.337.

Qian, M., Xia, G. (2001). The Relationship of Parenting Style to Self-Reported Mental Health among two subcultures of Chinese. Journal of Adolescence, 24, 251-260. https://doi.org/10.1006/jado.2001.0375.

Qu, Y., Pomerantz, E. M., Wang, Q., & Ng, F. F. (2020). Early adolescents' stereotypes about teens in Hong Kong and Chongqing: Reciprocal pathways with problem behavior. Developmental psychology, 56(6), 1092–1106. https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0000911.

Radziszewska, B., Richardson, J. L., Dent, C. W., & Flay, B. R. (1996). Parenting style and adolescent depressive symptoms, smoking, and academic achievement: ethnic, gender, and SES differences. Journal of behavioral medicine, 19(3), 289–305. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01857770.

Shek, D. T. L. (1995). The relation of family environments to adolescent psychological well-being, school adjustment, and problem: What can we learn from the Chinese culture? International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 8(3), 199-218. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221329709596683.

Steinberg, L., Lamborn, S. D., Darling, N., Mounts, N. S., & Dornbusch, S. M. (1994). Over-Time Changes in Adjustment and Competence among Adolescents from Authoritative, Authoritarian, Indulgent, and Neglectful Families. Child Development, 65(3), 754-770. https://doi.org/10.2307/1131416.

Stuart, G., What are authoritarian, permissive, uninvolved, and authoritative parenting styles? https:// sustainingcommunity. wordpress.com/2015/02/04/what-are-parenting-styles/.

Wang, Q., Chan, HW. & Lin, L. (2012). Antecedents of Chinese Parents’ Autonomy Support and Psychological Control: The Interplay Between Parents’ Self-Development Socialization Goals and Adolescents’ School Performance. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41(11), 1442–1454. https:// doi. org/ 10.1007/s10964-012-9760-0.

Williams, K. E., Ciarrochi, J., & Heaven, P. C. (2012). Inflexible parents, inflexible kids: a 6-year longitudinal study of parenting style and the development of psychological flexibility in adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41(8), 1053–1066. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-012-9744-0.

Zhang, W., Wei, X., Ji, L., Chen, L., & Deater-Deckard, K. (2017). Reconsidering Parenting in Chinese Culture: Subtypes, Stability, and Change of Maternal Parenting Style During Early Adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 46(5), 1117-1136. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-017-0664-x.




How to Cite

Zhou, S. (2022). Effects of Different Parenting Styles on Mental Health and Academic Outcomes for Adolescents from Different Cultural Backgrounds. BCP Social Sciences & Humanities, 20, 158–164. https://doi.org/10.54691/bcpssh.v20i.2184